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Melissa’s Shopping List

November 27, 2012 by themoms in MOMmentary™ - Melissa with 158 Comments
It is that time of year for holiday shopping! Cyber Monday, Black Friday..the rush to get the best gifts for your loved ones. This is never an easy task.
We have discovered many many cool gifts this year and we have found some “mommy-certified” holiday must haves for you and your loved ones. It was exciting for us to partner again with some fun companies to showcase a few holiday must haves and to be able to discuss all these cool gifts across the country on a Satellite Media Tour.
http://shop.skype.com/

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It went through her brain.”Asked if he was optimistic about a full recovery, Rhee said “we cannot tell what kind of recovery, but I’m about as optimistic as it can get in this situation.”President Obama said in a statement the shooting was “an unspeakable tragedy.””While we are continuing to receive information, we know that some have passed away, and that Representative Giffords is gravely wounded,” he said. “We do not yet have all the answers. What we do know is that such a senseless and terrible act of violence has no place in a free society. 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By 4 p.m., officials were saying she was expected to survive, which Rhee later confirmed.”I am horrified by the senseless attack on Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords and members of her staff,” said Speaker of the House John Boehner, R-Ohio. “An attack on one who serves is an attack on all who serve. Acts and threats of violence against public officials have no place in our society. Our prayers are with Congresswoman Giffords, her staff, all who were injured, and their families. This is a sad day for our country.”Elected to the House in 2006 and only the third Arizona woman to serve in Congress, Giffords was considered a centrist Blue Dog Democrat and a supporter of the military and immigration control. She is a member of the House Committee on Armed Services, the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Committee on Science and Technology.Giffords was unusually accessible and held scores of public meetings, prompting the Arizona Republic to dub her “the Energizer rabbit with a brain.” The Washington Post quoted former Labor Secretary Robert Reich as saying “I wouldn’t be surprised if she’s the first or second female president of the United States. She’s of that caliber.”In her capacity as chairwoman of the Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics, Giffords played a key role in recent debate over NASA’s future direction and was widely respected for her thorough knowledge of the issues. She married Kelly, veteran of three shuttle flights, in November 2007.An ardent supporter of the manned space program, Giffords questioned the Obama administration’s decision to scuttle the Constellation moon program, an initiative promoted by President Bush, and the Ares rockets NASA was designing to replace the space shuttle.The administration’s change of course was based in large part on a report by a presidential panel led by aerospace executive Normal Augustine that concluded the Constellation program was not sustainable given realistic budget expectations. The panel supported a shift to commercial launch providers in the near term and development of a new heavy lift rocket for deep space exploration in the long term.But the Augustine panel also said NASA would need significant additional funding to make any manned space option viable.Giffords was critical of the Augustine panel’s options, saying “I thought we were going to take a hard, cold, sobering look at the Constellation program and tell us exactly what we needed to do here in Congress, with our budget, in order to maximize the chances of success. But that’s not what I see.””Instead of focusing on how to strengthen the exploration program in which we’ve invested so much time — four years, billions of dollars — we have a glancing attention to Constellation, even referring to it in the past tense in your summary report and instead spending the bulk of the time crafting alternative options that do little to illuminate the choices that I think are really confronting the Congress and the White House.”So where does that leave us? I think in place of a serious review of potential actions that could be taken to strengthen and improve the Constellation program, we’ve been given a set of alternatives that in some sense look almost like cartoons, lacking detailed costs, schedule, technical, safety, other programmatic specifics that can’t be subjected to the rigorous and comprehensive analysis and validation that NASA’s required to go over.”So I guess I’ll ask my colleagues on this committee, what are we going to do with this report? I know that we are going to see more details. But in the absence of mismanagement or technological show stoppers … none of which the Augustine panel has indicated has occurred in this program, can any of us in good conscience recommend canceling the exploration systems development programs that Congress has funded and supported over the past four years?”Giffords said she did not see “the logic of scrapping what the nation has spent years and billions of dollars to develop.””And for the nation’s sake, I hope we can break this cycle of false starts that was mentioned by many of my colleagues before,” she said. “The future of America’s human spaceflight is really at risk. And I’m hoping before the panel is dismantled we can get some real, solid numbers … so we can make the decisions as to what to do with our future in manned spaceflight.”Giffords strongly disagreed with a compromise later put forward by the Senate, and ultimately approved by the administration, that called for an additional shuttle flight and immediate development of a new heavy lift rocket to replace the shuttle.Speaking on the House floor before a key vote Sept. 30, Giffords said the legislation “lacks serious budgetary discipline” and includes an “unfunded mandate to keep the shuttle program going through all of fiscal year 2011 even after the shuttle is retired, which NASA estimates will cost the agency more than half a billion dollars.”Giffords criticized the proposed heavy lift rocket as a launcher designed “not by our best engineers, but by our colleagues over on the Senate side. By NASA’s own internal analysis, they estimate this rocket will cost billions more than the Senate provides.””In short, the Senate bill forces NASA to build a rocket that doesn’t meet its needs, with a budget that’s not adequate to do the job and on a schedule that NASA’s own analysis says is unrealistic,” Giffords said. “That is not my idea of an executable and sustainable human spaceflight program.”Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is now available in our store. Get this piece of history!STS-134 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Endeavour is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-134. Available in our store!Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Project OrionThe Orion crew exploration vehicle is NASA’s first new human spacecraft developed since the space shuttle a quarter-century earlier. The capsule is one of the key elements of returning astronauts to the Moon.Fallen Heroes Patch CollectionThe official patches from Apollo 1, the shuttle Challenger and Columbia crews are available in the store. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.With a little help, South Korea set to make history SPACEFLIGHT NOWPosted: August 18, 2009 Partially made of critical technology bought from Russia, a South Korean space launcher is scheduled to rocket into history Wednesday on the country’s first jaunt into Earth orbit. File photo of the KSLV 1 rocket. Credit: KARIThe Korea Space Launch Vehicle 1, a two-stage rocket made from Russian and Korean components, is slated to lift off in a window stretching from 0740-0920 GMT (3:40-5:20 a.m. EDT) Wednesday from the new Naro Space Center about 300 miles south of Seoul.Korean news outlets reported officials will likely target launch for around 0800 GMT (4 a.m. EDT), or about 5 p.m. local time.Fueling of the KSLV’s first stage should begin about two hours before launch and an automated countdown sequence will commence 15 minutes before the appointed liftoff time, according to the Korea Aerospace Research Institute.The 108-foot-tall rocket will head south from its island launch pad, crossing over the Sea of Japan and accelerating to more than 17,000 miles per hour in less than eight minutes.See our for more details.If successful, the historic launch will place South Korea in an elite group of spacefaring countries with a domestic orbital launch capability.The former Soviet Union launched the world’s first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, in October 1957. The United States followed with the successful launch of Explorer 1 in January 1958.France, Japan, China, the United Kingdom, India and Israel later developed and successfully flew their own space launchers.Iran joined the club in February when it launched an experimental communications satellite with a Safir 2 rocket.Engineers rolled the KSLV 1 rocket from an assembly hangar to the launch pad on Monday. Ground controllers rehearsed countdown procedures and gave a “go” for launch on Tuesday.South Korea began designing the rocket in 2002 and originally hoped to launch the booster in 2005.After early development trouble, Russian rocket-maker Khrunichev signed on to the KSLV 1 project in 2004, spearheading the first stage and construction of the Naro launch site in Jeolladam-do province in the southwestern part of the country.The first stage is powered by an RD-191 main engined fueled by kerosene and liquid oxygen. Designed by Russian engine-builder Energomash, the propulsion system is based on the RD-171 and RD-180 engines that propel Zenit and Atlas rockets toward space.Officially named the Universal Rocket Module, the first stage was developed for Russia’s next-generation Angara rocket, a modular design engineers hope will haul small, medium-sized, and heavy satellites into orbit.But Angara’s development has been stymied by a series of delays, and the first stage of the new rocket will make its maiden flight from South Korea.About 160 Russian engineers are present at the Naro launch site to support the mission, according to reports from the Korea Times.Wednesday’s launch was postponed from July 30 and Aug. 11 to give Khrunichev officials more time to analyze results of a critical engine test in Russia late last month.The RD-191 engine will ramp up to 430,000 pounds of thrust at liftoff, burning for nearly four minutes to guide the rocket to an altitude of more than 120 miles.After coasting through space for almost three minutes, the KSLV’s Korean-bult solid-fueled second stage will ignite for a one-minute firing to accelerate the rocket to orbital velocity.The launcher will deploy the mission’s 219-pound payload nine minutes after liftoff, according to KARI.The Science and Technology Satellite 2, or STSAT 2, will measure radiation in Earth’s atmosphere and demonstrate several key technologies Korean scientists could use on future spacecraft.Officials may not know the outcome of the mission until STSAT 2 passes over a communications station about 13 hours after launch.STS-134 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Endeavour is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-134. Available in our store!Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is now available in our store. Get this piece of history!Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.STS-133 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Discovery is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-133. Available in our store!Anniversary Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This embroidered patch commemorates the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program. The design features the space shuttle Columbia’s historic maiden flight of April 12, 1981.Mercury anniversaryFree shipping to U.S. addresses!Celebrate the 50th anniversary of Alan Shephard’s historic Mercury mission with this collectors’ item, the official commemorative embroidered patch. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.With questions swirling, ULA hastens Delta 4 production SPACEFLIGHT NOWPosted: May 19, 2014 COLORADO SPRINGS, Colo. — United Launch Alliance chief executive Michael Gass said Monday the rocket builder is accelerating production of the Delta 4 launcher to ensure U.S. national security satellites can get to space in case imports of Russian rocket engines are halted. File photo of a Delta 4-Heavy rocket on the launch pad at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. Credit: Pat Corkery/ULAGass told reporters Monday the decision to ramp up Delta 4 rocket production was part of a contingency plan adopted by ULA under the U.S. Defense Department’s policy of assured access to space, which led to the development of the Atlas 5 and Delta 4 rocket families in the 1990s.”The first thing we’re doing is making sure we’re implementing that contingency plan, which includes the acceleration of Delta 4 production, so some of that work is underway,” Gass said.ULA was formed in 2006 by the merger of Lockheed Martin’s Atlas 5 rocket program with the Boeing-designed Delta 4, which uses U.S.-built engines, in a bid to cut overhead costs while maintaining two independent launch vehicle families.The future of ULA’s Atlas 5 rocket, which has a first stage powered by Russian-built RD-180 engines, was muddled twice in the last three weeks, first when a U.S. federal judge issued a temporary injunction ordering ULA and the U.S. Air Force to stop purchasing the engine from Russia.The preliminary order was issued April 30 after SpaceX filed a lawsuit in the U.S. Court of Federal Claims attempting to block the sole-source award of 28 rocket launches to ULA. In its filing with the court, in which the company claimed it could launch U.S. military satellites at a quarter of ULA’s costs, SpaceX alleged the purchases of the RD-180 engine might violate sanctions levied against Russian officials in the wake up the annexation of Crimea.The judge lifted the injunction May 8 after U.S. government officials submitted letters to the court saying they have no evidence the engine trade violates any sanctions.Then Russian deputy prime minister Dmitry Rogozin, who is charged with managing Russia’s space and defense sectors, announced May 13 that Russia would restrict future RD-180 engine exports to only missions which serve civilian purposes.Gass said Monday he was not aware of any order from the Russian government to NPO Energomash, the manufacturer of the RD-180 engine, regarding the engine’s export to the United States.”Mr. Rogozin’s comments were certainly a reaction to some comments that our country made about escalating the next round of sanctions,” Gass said.There are 16 RD-180 engines currently in the United States. One of the engines will fly on an Atlas 5 rocket launch from Cape Canaveral scheduled for Thursday. Five more engines were due for delivery to the United States the second half of this year, according to Gass, and ULA has already purchased RD-180 engines to cover its commitments to the Pentagon in the Air Force’s order of 36 rocket cores last year. File photo of an Atlas 5 launch in May 2013. Credit: Pat Corkery/ULAThe 36-core block buy is equivalent to 28 launches because four of the flights will use the Delta 4-Heavy, which is comprised of three first stage rocket cores to boost performance for heavier payloads. Of the 36 rocket cores ordered by the Air Force, Gass said 20 are for the Atlas 5 and 16 are for the Delta 4.If the Atlas 5 continued to launch at the same rate as recent years — assuming no more RD-180 engine imports — the supply would run out some time in 2016. The Atlas 5 is scheduled to launch U.S. military communications satellites, GPS navigation spacecraft, intelligence-gathering payloads for the National Reconnaissance Office, a NASA lander to Mars, and at least two commercial satellites over that period.”We’ve kept a safety stock of engines in place to help with a smooth transition to move all those payloads to Delta 4 if necessary,” Gass said.If Rogozin’s statements are backed up with actions limiting RD-180 engine exports to support only civil launches, Gass said ULA and its RD-180 contractor, RD AMROSS, would take delivery of the engines anyway and use them on launches for NASA, commercial satellites, and commercial crew spacecraft under development to fly on Atlas 5.”In that contingency plan, there will be certain missions that for sure will probably stay on Atlas because they’re best configured for Atlas,” Gass said. “Ones already dual-integrated on Delta 4 will be the easiest ones to switch. We’re working different contingency plans for that.”The Delta 4 rocket costs more than an Atlas 5 to put the same mass into orbit, requiring strap-on solid rocket boosters to loft a satellite that an Atlas 5 could launch with just its liquid-fueled first and second stages.Some larger U.S. military payloads, such as the Navy’s Mobile User Objective System communications satellites, would have to upgrade to a $350 million Delta 4-Heavy rocket if they were removed from the Atlas 5 launch manifest.Those satellites will likely stay on the Atlas 5, Gass said, using the engines already delivered to the United States.Hastening the pace of Delta 4 manufacturing could reduce its cost in the long run, perhaps bringing its price into parity with the Atlas 5, according to Gass.”The premise right now in the price sheet is that Delta 4, by similar capability, is more [expensive] than Atlas, but those were prices based on a certain build rate,” Gass said. “Now, we’re going to accelerate the build rate, and the Delta prices will come down accordingly. How much? We’ve got to go negotiate how much.” Photo of the most recent Delta 4 launch on May 16 with a GPS navigation satellite. Credit: ULAGass said ULA did not decide to advance production of the Delta 4 launcher at the request of the Defense Department.”United Launch Alliance is committed, first and foremost, to the nation,” Gass said. “We hold our commitments, so we’re just going to move out and do it. We’re not waiting for customers to ask us.”ULA has already launched discussions with Delta 4 suppliers to move up deliveries.”We have material on order with all our suppliers to support the block buy, so [we will] take what we already ordered and just accelerate the production of that, get it earlier and then supplant that with some additional long-lead material to make sure we can sustain a high production rate into the third and fourth years of the block buy contract,” Gass said.The Delta 4’s launch rate since the beginning of 2012 has been approximately one-half of the Atlas 5’s.If Defense Department payloads are forced to swap rockets to the Delta 4, Gass said ULA’s contract with the Air Force allows for flexibility to re-allocate launches between the company’s two vehicles.But Gass would not say whether ULA or the U.S. government would have to pay the difference if satellites assigned to Atlas 5 end up riding on more expensive Delta 4s.Gass said his interpretation of Rogozin’s announcement on the RD-180 engine was that the Russian deputy prime minister was discussing Russia’s actions in response to U.S. sanctions.In a transcript of Rogozin’s press conference posted to an official Russian government website, the deputy prime minister said Russia was taking steps to warn its partners in about potential reciprocal action against sanctions.”It was a comment that if the United States did something, this is something he may do,” Gass said of Rogozin’s statement.Rogozin and Oleg Ostapenko, head of the Russian Federal Space Agency, raised concerns that restrictions on exports of defense-related products to Russia would disrupt Russian rocket businesses that rely on the international satellite market. Almost all large telecommunications satellites contain components built in the United States and Europe.Industry officials forecast little disruption for companies planning launches on Russian rockets this year, at least in terms of export licensing. Russia’s Proton rocket is grounded after a May 15 launch failure, forcing customers booked to fly on it to pivot from worrying about political trouble to technical reliability.Most satellite export licenses for upcoming missions have already been issued, with no clear sign the U.S. State or Commerce departments plan to revoke them, despite public pronouncements claiming they could.RD-180 engines shipped to ULA up to now have been approved for dual-use missions, meaning they can be launched for military or civilian purposes, such as for NASA or a commercial customer.”He said some important words that he would hold back for military use, which is just clearly a response to our country’s comment about holding back exports for military use,” Gass said. “It was truly a quid pro quo comment.”Follow Stephen Clark on Twitter: .John Glenn Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The historic first orbital flight by an American is marked by this commemorative patch for John Glenn and Friendship 7.Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is available in our store. Get this piece of history!Celebrate the shuttle programFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This special commemorative patch marks the retirement of NASA’s Space Shuttle Program. Available in our store!Anniversary Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This embroidered patch commemorates the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program. The design features the space shuttle Columbia’s historic maiden flight of April 12, 1981.Mercury anniversaryFree shipping to U.S. addresses!Celebrate the 50th anniversary of Alan Shephard’s historic Mercury mission with this collectors’ item, the official commemorative embroidered patch.Fallen Heroes Patch CollectionThe official patches from Apollo 1, the shuttle Challenger and Columbia crews are available in the store. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.World Cup stadiums seen from spaceSPACEFLIGHT NOWPosted: June 13, 2014 The 12 stadiums hosting World Cup matches across Brazil have been sighted by France’s high-resolution Pleiades Earth observing satellites.Airbus Defence & Space, owner of the satellites, released the imagery as workers put finishing touches on the facilities ahead of Thursday’s 2014 FIFA World Cup opening match.Photo credit: Airbus Defence & Space/Spot Image

  142. Brain InjuriesOct 31, 2014 at 11:40 amReply

    STORY WRITTEN FOR & USED WITH PERMISSIONPosted: January 14, 2005The European Space Agency unveiled the first raw images from the Huygens Titan probe today, black-and-white pictures showing ice blocks strewn across the surface and hard-to-interpret features resembling drainage channels and, possibly, a frigid shoreline of sorts. This is one of the first raw images returned by the ESA Huygens probe during its successful descent. It was taken from an altitude of 16.2 kilometres with a resolution of approximately 40 metres per pixel. It apparently shows short, stubby drainage channels leading to a shoreline. Credit: ESA/NASA TVAs of 3 p.m. EST (2000 GMT), more than 350 images from the Huygens main camera were on the ground, shot at altitudes above and below the haze layer that marks Titan’s thick nitrogen atmosphere.The first picture shown to reporters was shot at an altitude of about 10 miles with a surface resolution of about 50 feet.”I think it’s pretty clear you see things that look pretty much like drainage channels, maye not like drainage channels like on rivers on the Earth, but perhaps stubby box canyons with seepage out of the walls, flowing down towards what looks very much like a shoreline,” said Martin Tomasko, principal investigator for Huygens’ descent imager.”We suspected there would be liquid on the surface of Titan, we suspected we would see things that looked like drainage channels and shorelines, but we’ve never been able to see them with this clarity.”A second photo showed the surface of Titan surrounding the Huygens probe after it touched down on the frigid moon. The scene resembled recent photos from NASA’s Mars rovers, showing a rock-strewn plain stretching away toward a hazy horizon. This raw image was returned by the Descent Imager/Spectral Radiometer camera onboard the European Space Agency’s Huygens probe after the probe descended through the atmosphere of Titan. It shows the surface of Titan with ice blocks strewn around. The size and distance of the blocks will be determined when the image is properly processed. Credit: ESA/NASA/University of ArizonaSaid European Space agency science chief David Southwood: “I am just delighted. I just wanted to know that there was complexity down there, that this really was a world that was going to yield totally new science. I’m now convinced we’re going to do it. it’s the end of a wonderful day, I’m going to remember it for the rest of my life.”Despite Tomasko’s off-the-cuff interpretation of the initial picture, it was not immediately clear whether the images did, in fact, show liquid ethane or related compounds theorized to exist on the surface.Video coverage for subscribers only:VIDEO:THE FIRST PICTURE FROM HUYGENS IS REVEALED VIDEO:HUYGENS POST-LANDING NEWS BRIEFING VIDEO:STATUS REPORT DURING DESCENT AUDIO:TODAY’S STATUS REPORT DURING DESCENT VIDEO:HUYGENS PRE-ARRIVAL NEWS BRIEFING AUDIO:HUYGENS PRE-ARRIVAL NEWS BRIEFING VIDEO:OVERVIEW OF HUYGENS PROBE’S SCIENCE OBJECTIVES VIDEO:JULY NEWS BRIEFING ON CASSINI’S PICTURES OF TITAN VIDEO:PICTURES SHOWING TITAN SURFACE FROM OCT. FLYBY VIDEO:WHAT’S KNOWN ABOUT TITAN BEFORE THE FIRST FLYBY VIDEO:NARRATED MOVIE OF CLOUDS MOVING NEAR SOUTH POLE VIDEO:OCT. BRIEFING ON RADAR IMAGES OF TITAN SURFACE Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.First Huygens picture Posted: January 14, 2005 This is one of the first raw images returned by the ESA Huygens probe during its successful descent. It was taken from an altitude of 16.2 kilometres with a resolution of approximately 40 metres per pixel. It apparently shows short, stubby drainage channels leading to a shoreline. Credit: ESA/NASA TVVideo coverage for subscribers only:VIDEO:THE FIRST PICTURE FROM HUYGENS IS REVEALED VIDEO:HUYGENS POST-LANDING NEWS BRIEFING VIDEO:STATUS REPORT DURING DESCENT AUDIO:TODAY’S STATUS REPORT DURING DESCENT VIDEO:HUYGENS PRE-ARRIVAL NEWS BRIEFING AUDIO:HUYGENS PRE-ARRIVAL NEWS BRIEFING VIDEO:OVERVIEW OF HUYGENS PROBE’S SCIENCE OBJECTIVES VIDEO:JULY NEWS BRIEFING ON CASSINI’S PICTURES OF TITAN VIDEO:PICTURES SHOWING TITAN SURFACE FROM OCT. FLYBY VIDEO:WHAT’S KNOWN ABOUT TITAN BEFORE THE FIRST FLYBY VIDEO:NARRATED MOVIE OF CLOUDS MOVING NEAR SOUTH POLE VIDEO:OCT. BRIEFING ON RADAR IMAGES OF TITAN SURFACE New StationCrew PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The Expedition 38 embroidered crew patch for the International Space Station is now available in our store! | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.First Huygens pictures Posted: January 14, 2005 This raw image was returned by the Descent Imager/Spectral Radiometer camera onboard the European Space Agency’s Huygens probe after the probe descended through the atmosphere of Titan. It shows the surface of Titan with ice blocks strewn around. The size and distance of the blocks will be determined when the image is properly processed. Credit: ESA/NASA/University of ArizonaVideo coverage for subscribers only:VIDEO:THE FIRST PICTURE FROM HUYGENS IS REVEALED VIDEO:HUYGENS POST-LANDING NEWS BRIEFING VIDEO:STATUS REPORT DURING DESCENT AUDIO:TODAY’S STATUS REPORT DURING DESCENT VIDEO:HUYGENS PRE-ARRIVAL NEWS BRIEFING AUDIO:HUYGENS PRE-ARRIVAL NEWS BRIEFING VIDEO:OVERVIEW OF HUYGENS PROBE’S SCIENCE OBJECTIVES VIDEO:JULY NEWS BRIEFING ON CASSINI’S PICTURES OF TITAN VIDEO:PICTURES SHOWING TITAN SURFACE FROM OCT. FLYBY VIDEO:WHAT’S KNOWN ABOUT TITAN BEFORE THE FIRST FLYBY VIDEO:NARRATED MOVIE OF CLOUDS MOVING NEAR SOUTH POLE VIDEO:OCT. BRIEFING ON RADAR IMAGES OF TITAN SURFACE Ferryflight Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!”The Final Mission” – NASA emblem developed for the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft crew and their support teams to deliver the orbiters to their final destinations at museums. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Spaceflight Now +Premium video content for our Spaceflight Now Plus subscribers.Burn ignition!Mission control erupts in applause as communications from Cassini confirm the orbit insertion burn has begun. (60sec file)Burn completedSignals from Cassini announce the conclusion of the Saturn orbit insertion burn, confirming the spacecraft has arrived at the ringed planet. (2min 15sec file)Post-arrival briefingMission officials hold a post-orbit insertion burn news conference at 1 a.m. EDT July 1 to discuss Cassini’s successful arrival at Saturn. (25min 27sec file)Wednesday’s status briefingCassini’s health in the final hours before arrival at Saturn is presented in this status briefing from 12 p.m. EDT on June 30. (33min 09sec file)International cooperationOfficials from the U.S., European and Italian space agencies discuss the international cooperation in the Cassini mission and future exploration projects during this news conference from 2 p.m. EDT June 30. (19min 35sec file)’Ring-side’ chatThis informal “ring-side chat” from 5 p.m. EDT June 30 discusses the Cassini mission to Saturn and the future of space exploration. (49min 20sec file)Cassini updateMission managers and scientists provide an update on the Cassini mission and preview the spacecraft’s arrival at Saturn during this news conference from June 29. (51min 58sec file)Phoebe science briefingScientists report scientific results from the Cassini spacecraft’s close-up examination of Saturn’s moon Phoebe. (31min 53sec file)Phoebe flyby previewThis animation shows Cassini during its encounter with the tiny moon Phoebe on the route to Saturn. (42sec file)Cassini previewThe Cassini spacecraft’s arrival at Saturn is previewed in this detailed news conference from NASA Headquarters on June 3. (50min 01sec file)Saturn arrival explainedCassini’s make-or-break engine firing to enter orbit around Saturn is explained with graphics and animation. Expert narration is provided by Cassini program manager Robert Mitchell. (3min 33sec file)Cassini mission scienceThe scientific objectives of the Cassini mission to study the planet Saturn, its rings and moons are explained by Charles Elachi, director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. (4min 54sec file)Huygens mission scienceAfter entering orbit around Saturn, the Cassini spacecraft will launch the European Huygens probe to make a parachute landing on the surface of the moon Titan. The scientific objectives of Huygens are explained by probe project manager Jean-Pierre Lebreton. (3min 14sec file)Flyby timeline BY WILLIAM HARWOOD

  143. Nike Free Run 3Oct 31, 2014 at 11:41 amReply

    Posted: January 5, 2011 Later photographs from 1985 provide another look at the only time a space shuttle vehicle ever stood at Vandenberg Air Force Base’s Space Launch Complex 6. The program of launching military space shuttle flights into polar orbits from California would be cancelled before any missions ever took off and the SLC-6 pad eventually transferred to the Delta 4 rocket.Credit: U.S. Air Force photos Credit: U.S. Air Force photos | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.First ULA Delta 2 launchPosted: December 15, 2006The first United Launch Alliance Delta 2 rocket ascends from Vandenberg Air Force Base carrying a classified payload for the National Reconnaissance Office. Credit: Thom Baur/ULA Credit: Thom Baur/ULA Credit: U.S. Air Force photo by Michael Stonecypher Credit: U.S. Air Force photo by Master Sgt. Richard Freeland Credit: U.S. Air Force photo by Master Sgt. Richard Freeland Credit: Thom Baur/ULAAdditional coverage for subscribers:VIDEO:DAZZLING ONBOARD CAMERA FOOTAGE OF LAUNCH VIDEO:DELTA 2 ROCKET BLASTS OFF WITH NRO PAYLOAD VIDEO:PAD GANTRY ROLLED BACK ON LAUNCH MORNING VIDEO:DELTA 2 ROCKET BEING ASSEMBLED ON THE PAD Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.First ULA Delta 2 rocketPosted: December 14, 2006When the mobile service tower was rolled back this morning, the first United Launch Alliance Delta 2 rocket was revealed. ULA logos appear on the rocket and the pad’s umbilical tower. Credit: Thom Baur/ULAAres 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.First-of-its-kind satellite for GPS launched into space SPACEFLIGHT NOWPosted: May 28, 2010 A new era for the Global Positioning System rocketed into orbit Thursday night, beginning a concerted effort to sharpen the precision capabilities beaming from the world’s foremost space-based navigation network. Credit: Stephen Clark/Spaceflight Now “GPS is used by nearly a billion people worldwide for everything from farming and aviation to public safety, disaster relief and recreation, not to mention its military purpose of providing precision navigation and timing to combat forces,” said Col. David Madden, the Air Force’s GPS Wing commander.Some 60 satellites have been launched for the system over the past three decades, initially testing the concept and later assembling the operational grid in use today.And now the Air Force has successfully launched the first spacecraft in the Block 2F series, a new breed of GPS satellite that features even higher accuracy, enhanced internal clocks, longer life and reprogrammable onboard processors to evolve with future needs.”GPS 2F will increase the signal power, precision and capacity of the system, and form the core of the GPS constellation for years to come,” said Madden.A United Launch Alliance Delta 4 rocket, flying in its Medium+ variant equipped with a pair of solid-fuel strap-on motors, roared into Cape Canaveral’s nighttime sky at 11:00 p.m. EDT carrying the GPS 2F-1 satellite nestled in its nose cone.Unlike GPS launches over the past 20 years that relied on Delta 2 rockets for delivery into orbit, the new-generation 2F satellites also got upgraded to the larger, more capable Delta 4 and Atlas 5 fleets of boosters in the Air Force’s Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle program. Although the Delta 2 was highly reliable, it wasn’t powerful enough to inject the GPS satellites directly into the orbiting constellation. The birds needed their own kick motor and several days to reach the desired destination.That all changed Thursday night when the Delta 4’s upper stage performed three firings that methodically hauled the GPS 2F-1 satellite into a circular orbit 11,000 nautical miles above the planet. In just three-and-a-half hours, the $121 million spacecraft had arrived at the proper altitude and completely bypassed the circuitous route of its predecessors. An artist’s concept shows a GPS 2F satellite in Earth orbit. Credit: BoeingBoeing is building a dozen Block 2F satellites to replace orbiting GPS spacecraft as they age, keeping the navigation signals going strong for years to come.”These next-generation satellites provide improved accuracy through advanced atomic clocks; a more jam-resistant military signal and a longer design life than earlier GPS satellites; and a new civil signal that benefits aviation safety and search-and-rescue efforts,” said Craig Cooning, vice president and general manager at Boeing Space and Intelligence Systems. “GPS 2F is the culmination of our deep experience with 39 successful satellites from previous missions, representing more than 30 years of teamwork with the Air Force.””Normally when you are launching the first-of-a-kind satellite you’d be really worried because it’s a system that’s more complex than the last generation. In this case, we’ve added capability but it’s built on a foundation of success from the 2A program, which was a massively successful program,” Madden said.Today’s GPS constellation is comprised of 30 functioning satellites, including 11 Block 2A’s made by Boeing, 12 2R’s and 7 2R-Modernized spacecraft built by Lockheed Martin. Their ages range from the teens to less than a year old.”The current GPS constellation has the most satellites and the greatest capability ever. We’re committed to maintaining our current level of service, as well as striving to improve service and capability through on-going modernization efforts,” Madden said.”The U.S. Air Force and Air Force Space Command have been diligent stewards of GPS since its conception in the 1970s and continue its commitment to this critical component of our national infrastructure.”GPS satellites emit continuous navigation signals that allow users to find their position in latitude, longitude and altitude and determine time. Originally built as a tool for the U.S. military, the utility has spread across the world as an indispensable commercial service. One of the GPS 2F satellites is pictured at the manufacturing facility. Credit: BoeingGround controllers expect to have the 2F-1 satellite checked out and ready for use in 90 to 120 days, the Air Force says.The new GPS 2F-1 spacecraft take over the Plane B, Slot 2 location of the network, considered one of the primary positions in the constellation that is divided into six orbital groupings with multiple satellites flying in each.The craft will take the position presently held by the GPS 2A-27 satellite, which was launched in September 1996 and has exceeded its expected lifetime. It will be relocated as part of the Air Force’s efforts to spread out the available satellites and increase coverage.That particular slot was supposed to be occupied by the GPS 2R-20 satellite after it launched in March 2009. But an interference problem with a test payload aboard the craft prevented it from entering service as scheduled.Getting to Thursday’s launch, which was years in the making, took much longer than planners of the Block 2F program ever imagined.”We’ve had some growing pains with the 2F, but our industry and government teams have overcome every obstacle that’s been thrown our way as we’ve maintained our focus on mission assurance,” said Madden.”Over the years, requirements changes, contractor technical challenges, a change in factory location and a increased emphasis on mission assurance have driven changes to the launch schedule. In the end, the changes over the years will give global users better capabilities and improve our confidence in the day-to-day and end-of-life performance,” the Global Positioning Systems Wing said.Since sustaining the constellation is the main purpose for the GPS 2F satellites, the upcoming launches will be scheduled when fresh spacecraft are needed.”There are too many variables to accurately predict when the entire Block 2F fleet will arrive on-orbit,” the Wing says.The Air Force could launch the GPS 2F-2 satellite in November or December using an Atlas 5 rocket from Cape Canaveral.”Constellation health and launch vehicle availability will dictate this and the remaining GPS 2F launches,” the Wing said. Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is now available in our store. Get this piece of history!STS-134 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Endeavour is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-134. Available in our store!Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Project OrionThe Orion crew exploration vehicle is NASA’s first new human spacecraft developed since the space shuttle a quarter-century earlier. The capsule is one of the key elements of returning astronauts to the Moon.Fallen Heroes Patch CollectionThe official patches from Apollo 1, the shuttle Challenger and Columbia crews are available in the store. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Five spacecraft launched to probe explosive space stormsSPACEFLIGHT NOW

  144. Doudoune Moncler 2014Oct 31, 2014 at 11:41 amReply

    Posted: December 12, 2006T-00:00LiftoffThe Delta 2 rocket’s main engine and twin vernier steering thrusters are started moments before launch. The six ground-start strap-on solid rocket motors are ignited at T-0 to begin the mission.T+01:04.0Ground SRM BurnoutThe ground-start Alliant TechSystems-built solid rocket motors consume all their propellant and burn out.T+01:05.5Air-Lit SRM IgnitionThe three remaining solid rocket motors strapped to the Delta 2 rocket’s first stage are ignited.T+01:26.0Jettison Ground SRMsThe spent solid rocket boosters are jettisoned to fall into the Pacific Ocean. The spent casings remained attached until the vehicle passed into preset drop zone, clear of offshore oil platforms.T+01:30.0Begin Dog-legAfter initially flying from Vandenberg along a 196-degree flight azimuth, the rocket begins steering itself in a more southeastward direction to obtain the desired orbital inclination. This dog-leg maneuver continues until T+plus 2 minutes, 22 seconds.T+02:11.5Jettison Air-Lit SRMsHaving burned out two seconds earlier, the three spent air-started solid rocket boosters are jettisoned.T+04:23.4Main Engine CutoffAfter consuming its RP-1 fuel and liquid oxygen, the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne RS-27A first stage main engine is shut down. The vernier engines cut off moments later.T+04:31.4Stage SeparationThe Delta rocket’s first stage is separated now, having completed its job. The spent stage will fall into the Pacific Ocean.T+04:36.9Second Stage IgnitionWith the stage jettisoned, the rocket’s second stage takes over. The Aerojet AJ118-K liquid-fueled engine ignites for the first of two firings needed to place the NRO spacecraft into the proper orbit.T+04:41.0Jettison Payload FairingThe 10-foot diameter payload fairing that protected the NRO cargo atop the Delta 2 during the atmospheric ascent is jettisoned is two halves.T+10:58.2Second Stage Cutoff 1The second stage engine shuts down to complete its first firing of the launch. The rocket and attached spacecraft are now in a long coast period before the second stage reignites. The orbit achieved should be 202 nautical miles at apogee, 100 miles at perigee and inclined 58.6 degrees.T+55:13.2Second Stage RestartDelta’s second stage engine reignites for a short firing to raise the orbit’s perigee.T+55:18.7Second Stage Cutoff 2The second stage shuts down after a five-second burn. The orbit achieved should be 203 nautical miles at apogee, 191 miles at perigee and inclined 58.5 degrees.T+57:50.0Payload SeparationThe classified payload for the U.S. National Reconnaissance Office is released from the Delta 2 rocket, completing the first United Launch Alliance space mission.Data source: ULA.Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is now available in our store. Get this piece of history!STS-134 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Endeavour is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-134. Available in our store!Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Project OrionThe Orion crew exploration vehicle is NASA’s first new human spacecraft developed since the space shuttle a quarter-century earlier. The capsule is one of the key elements of returning astronauts to the Moon.Fallen Heroes Patch CollectionThe official patches from Apollo 1, the shuttle Challenger and Columbia crews are available in the store. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Delta 324 launch timelineSPACEFLIGHT NOW

  145. Air Max SkylineOct 31, 2014 at 11:41 amReply

    STORY WRITTEN FOR & USED WITH PERMISSIONPosted: March 8, 2006The shuttle Discovery’s robot arm is undergoing ultrasound inspections after a weekend mishap in which a moveable access bucket bumped into the arm during work to clean up broken glass. Two small indentations were found underneath the arm’s insulation blankets and NASA wants to make sure the underlying structure wasn’t damaged. At the same time, engineers are assessing tile damage to the shuttle Endeavour’s body flap caused by equipment that slipped off a tray used by workers inspecting the ship’s rudder/speed brake. File image. Credit: NASA-KSCThe Endeavour incident happened Tuesday morning in Orbiter Processing Facility Bay 2 while technicians were carrying out an X-ray inspection of the rudder and speed brake system in the shuttle’s vertical stabilizer.”While they were doing that, they dropped some equipment off the tray,” said Jessica Rye, a NASA spokeswoman. “What they dropped was a film processor, it struck the left hand side of the body flap. There was some tile damage on the body flap, which they’re addressing. They’re looking, of course, at structural inspections to evaluate if there is any structural damage to the body flap.”In Discovery’s hangar (OPF Bay 3), meanwhile, engineers are continuing inspections of the shuttle’s 50-foot-long robot. Friday night, engineers servicing the shuttle’s heat shield tiles broke a light fixture. During work to vacuum up the fragments, a telescoping bucket used to move technicians from point to point in the cargo bay bumped into the robot arm.Insulation blankets were removed and engineers spotted apparent damage to an aluminum grounding strap that runs the length of the arm. In addition, there are two small indentations in the arm’s so-called outer bumper, an epoxy honeycomb material that protects the arm’s underlying carbon composite structure. One indentation is .115 inches deep and 1 inch long and the other is .035 inches deep and a half-inch long.During Discovery’s upcoming mission, the shuttle arm will be used to pick up a long boom equipped with cameras and laser sensors to inspect the shuttle’s heat-shield system after launch. In addition, two astronauts will ride about on the end of the boom during the first of three planned spacewalks as part of an engineering study to evaluate the extended arm-boom system’s stability. The idea is to find out if the system could be used for heat-shield repair work if such work is ever needed.To help evaluate the loads on the arm-boom system, Discovery’s robot arm has been instrumented and engineers want to make sure the arm itself and the instrumentation were not damaged by the work bucket incident.As of this writing, the arm damage does not appear to be a threat to the shuttle schedule, but engineers won’t know for sure until the ultrasound tests are complete.Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is now available in our store. Get this piece of history!STS-134 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Endeavour is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-134. Available in our store!Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Project OrionThe Orion crew exploration vehicle is NASA’s first new human spacecraft developed since the space shuttle a quarter-century earlier. The capsule is one of the key elements of returning astronauts to the Moon.Fallen Heroes Patch CollectionThe official patches from Apollo 1, the shuttle Challenger and Columbia crews are available in the store.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.United Launch Alliance announces leadership change SPACEFLIGHT NOWPosted: August 12, 2014 United Launch Alliance has named a new president and chief executive to replace Michael Gass, who led the Atlas and Delta rocket company since its inception in 2006. File photo of ULA’s former president and CEO Michael Gass. Credit: Space FoundationGass will be replaced effective immediately as president and CEO by Tory Bruno, an executive at Lockheed Martin Corp., which formed ULA in December 2006 in a 50-50 joint venture with Boeing Co., ULA said in a statement Tuesday.Gass is retiring at the end of the year, according to ULA.The change in leadership comes as the company faces competitive pressures from SpaceX, which is pushing to win a share of lucrative U.S. military satellite launch contracts now going exclusively to ULA.”I have been honored to serve as the chief executive officer of United Launch Alliance since its formation nearly eight years ago,” Gass said in a prepared statement. “With my intent to retire in the near term and the changing industry landscape over the next several years, the board of directors and I have agreed that the immediate appointment of my successor to begin the leadership transition is in the best interest of the company.”Bruno and Gass will “work collaboratively to ensure a smooth leadership transition and continued commitment to mission success,” the ULA statement said.ULA builds and operates the Atlas 5, Delta 4 and Delta 2 rockets used to launch communications, navigation, surveillance and scientific research satellites for the U.S. government. Based in Centennial, Colo., ULA’s primary customers are the Pentagon, the National Reconnaissance Office and NASA.Bruno was previously president of strategic and missile defense systems at Lockheed Martin. In his 30-year career at Lockheed Martin, Bruno managed the Trident submarine-based nuclear missile and the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense Missile programs and served in engineering positions involving design and analysis for control systems of rockets and hypersonic reentry vehicles.”I have known my successor, Tory Bruno, for many years,” Gass said. “He has demonstrated an impressive leadership track record and has the skills to lead ULA into the future. I will support Tory over the next several months to ensure a smooth transition.”Gass led Atlas rocket programs at Lockheed Martin before taking the helm at ULA in 2006. He also held management positions at General Dynamics’ Space Systems division earlier in his career, where he contributed to the creation of the Atlas-Centaur commercial business plan. A United Launch Alliance Atlas 5 rocket sits on the launch pad at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., before an Aug. 1 launch. Credit: United Launch Alliance”We’re grateful for Mike’s leadership and contribution to ULA’s customers and employees, as well as the space industry as a whole,” said Craig Cooning, president of Boeing Network and Space Systems and a ULA board member. “Tory understands the launch business as well as anyone and is well-qualified to ensure ULA keeps pace with changing customer needs and launch industry dynamics.”Before the departure of Gass, ULA ratcheted up lobbying and criticism of SpaceX in the wake of its lawsuit against the U.S. Air Force calling for a federal judge to overturn an $11 billion contract signed last year with ULA for 28 satellite launches. SpaceX says it can do the job for less money.The launches are part of the Air Force’s Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle, or EELV, program.”The whole tenor of the campaign is to make perfectly clear there’s a lot at stake when it comes to successful space launches,” Gass told reporters in June. “Literally, lives are at stake.”ULA and the Air Force counter that SpaceX was not eligible to bid on the launch contract under existing rocket procurement rules.”We also want to make it clear there’s a big distinction between a company that has over a hundred years of experience and heritage and successfully delivering satellites to orbit versus a company that is not yet even certified to conduct one EELV-class mission,” Gass said.The Air Force has accepted data from SpaceX on three successful flights of the company’s Falcon 9 v1.1 rocket, a key milestone as military officials try to certify the Falcon launcher to lift U.S. national security payloads into orbit.SpaceX’s Falcon 9 rocket program must still pass technical reviews, audits and independent verification and validation of the launch vehicle, ground systems, and manufacturing processes before the system will be considered for launching U.S. national security payloads, according to a statement released July 15 by the Air Force.Officials hope to finish the certification process by the end of the year.Russia’s annexation of Crimea also spawned worries that Russia would stop exporting RD-180 engines for ULA’s Atlas 5 rocket. Russian deputy prime minister Dmitry Rogozin in May threatened to cut off the supply of rocket engines for U.S. military launches, but ULA says engine shipments have been accelerated.The next set of RD-180 engines is due to arrive at ULA’s rocket factory in Alabama on Aug. 20, according to Jessica Rye, a company spokesperson.ULA said in June it had awarded study contracts to multiple U.S. companies working on an American engine that could eventually replace the RD-180.”Mike’s track record speaks for itself: 86 successful launches in a row, including many of our nation’s most complex and critical space missions,” said Rick Ambrose, executive vice president of Lockheed Martin Space Systems and a ULA board member, in ULA’s statement. “Tory is an ideal leader to take the reins at ULA. He’ll bring the same unwavering commitment to mission success that has been ULA’s hallmark, and will apply his proven track record of driving customer focus, innovation and affordability to shape ULA’s future.”Follow Stephen Clark on Twitter: .Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is now available in our store. Get this piece of history!STS-134 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Endeavour is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-134. Available in our store!Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Project OrionThe Orion crew exploration vehicle is NASA’s first new human spacecraft developed since the space shuttle a quarter-century earlier. The capsule is one of the key elements of returning astronauts to the Moon.Fallen Heroes Patch CollectionThe official patches from Apollo 1, the shuttle Challenger and Columbia crews are available in the store. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Voyager probes find surprise at solar system’s outer edgeBY WILLIAM HARWOOD

  146. Doudoune Moncler 2011Oct 31, 2014 at 11:42 amReply

    STORY WRITTEN FOR & USED WITH PERMISSIONPosted: January 14, 2005NASA’s Cassini Saturn orbiter began downlinking science data from theEuropean Space Agency’s Huygens probe at 11:19 a.m. EST (1619 GMT), confirming thespacecraft not only survived its high-speed plunge into the atmosphere ofSaturn’s moon, Titan, but that its instruments worked to remotely exploreone of the strangest worlds in the solar system.”Cassini has just started to deliver the data collected during thedescent,” said Jean-Jacques Dordain, director general of the Eruopean SpaceAgency. “This is a fantastic success for Europe!”Cassini and Huygens mission managers, scientists and engineers eruptedin cheers and applause when the first data packets began showing up oncomputers screens at the European Space Agency’s Space Operations Center inGermany. Successful reception of science data capped a morning of high dramaand ended any uncertainty that Europe had achieved one of its mostimpressive engineering and scientific triumphs.”All instruments are on,” a flight controller told the Huygens team.Mission managers already knew Cassini had survived its hellish plungeinto Titan’s atmosphere and had made it to the moon’s surface because of anunimaginably faint carrier signal that was detected by a network ofEarth-based radio telescopes. The signal, some 50 quadrillion times weakerthan a typical FM radio signal in a car radio, proved Huygens had survivedentry, deployed its main parachute and activated critical subsystems. Thesignal lasted more than two hours after the predicted landing, but it didnot carry any scientific data. It was merely a tone and while it showed thecraft was alive, it didn’t prove whether it had accomplished its scientificobjectives.But the European spacecraft apparently worked as advertised and right onschedule, after Cassini dropped below Titan’s horizon, the NASA mothershipturned back toward Earth and began transmitting data from Huygens’ suite ofsix instruments.”So the morning was good. The afternoon is better,” Dordain said at anews conference. “This morning, we had an engineering success and we can saythis afternoon that we also have a scientific success. We are the firstvisitors to Titan and the scientific data we are collecting now shall unveilthe secrets of this new world.”It will take several hours for mission scientists and engineers toextract and stitch together pictures from the data stream, but the firstpanoramic views showing the surface of Titan as Huygens descended throughits hazy atmosphere may be available between 5 p.m. and 6 p.m.”The torch has been handed off from the engineers … who’ve done theirjob of delivering the probe and delivering the data back,” said DavidSouthwood, European Space Agency science director. “Now the scientists startwork. We’re going to be working, I think, very hard in the next hours anddays but in fact, this data is data for posterity.”This is a historic event. I don’t think it’s likely in the lifetime ofanyone in this room that we will repeat a landing on Titan. so this is thedata, it’s for posterity, it’s for mankind. But it’s got to be unraveled,it’s got to be put together and then scientists, being scientists, are goingto argue about what it means as we piece together our place in the universeand how we came to be. I think this is a very major step forward. But it’sonly the beginning for our science teams.”NASA science chief Al Diaz choked back tears as he called the probemission “a tremendous success.””This really is another first,” he said. “There will only be a firstsuccessful landing on Titan and this was it. The European Space Agencydeserves a tremendous amount of credit. We’re glad we could have been apartner.”Claudio Sollazzo, ESA’s Huygens operations manager, said engineers wereinvestigating the apparent loss of data from one of two channels, or chains,of telemetry from Huygens. But he said the spacecraft was fully redundantand that “we can ensure that so far, on chain B, we see everything wentwell.””The probe went through the entry phase and the (main) parachute wasdeployed essentially at the time we predicted,” he said. “We are anxious tosee what we call the history data, the telemetry that was recorded on boardthe probe before even the back cover came off so we can reconstruct how theprobe entered the atmosphere. This is very important information for thescientists to know how the higher atmospheric layers are. it is also veryimportant for the engineering community.”Data on chain B showed “the batteries are OK, the computers worked asexpected, the software shows healthy status and instrument status as far aswe could receive … were nominal,” Sollazzo said. “The internal temperatureof the probe was about 25 degrees centigrade. So … our instruments areworking at a very comfortable temperature.”One of Huygens’ six experiments, the Doppler Wind Experiment, relied inpart on chain A of the probe’s communications system. It was designed tomeasure wind speeds by detecting subtle changes in the frequency of radiotransmissions as th craft is blown this way or that. If chain A did notwork, scientists will lose measurements of that shift between Huygens andCassini. But Sollazzo said similar measurements from Earth-based radiotelescopes will allow scientists to collect similar data to make up theshortfall, assuming the data on chain A is, in fact, lost.”We have a wonderful mission on Titan,” he said, “and we are eager todeliver the data to our scientists on time and then they will go on andanalyze the data and we should get some interesting results later tonight.”Video coverage for subscribers only:VIDEO:STATUS REPORT DURING DESCENT AUDIO:TODAY’S STATUS REPORT DURING DESCENT VIDEO:HUYGENS PRE-ARRIVAL NEWS BRIEFING AUDIO:HUYGENS PRE-ARRIVAL NEWS BRIEFING VIDEO:OVERVIEW OF HUYGENS PROBE’S SCIENCE OBJECTIVES VIDEO:JULY NEWS BRIEFING ON CASSINI’S PICTURES OF TITAN VIDEO:PICTURES SHOWING TITAN SURFACE FROM OCT. FLYBY VIDEO:WHAT’S KNOWN ABOUT TITAN BEFORE THE FIRST FLYBY VIDEO:NARRATED MOVIE OF CLOUDS MOVING NEAR SOUTH POLE VIDEO:OCT. BRIEFING ON RADAR IMAGES OF TITAN SURFACE Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Huygens test successful EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY NEWS RELEASEPosted: September 19, 2004ESA’s Huygens probe, now orbiting Saturn on board the NASA/ESA/ASI Cassini spacecraft, is in good health and successfully passed its fifteenth ‘In-Flight Checkout’ on 14 September 2004. An artist’s concept shows Huygens parachuting to Titan after deployment from the Cassini orbiter. Credit: EADS AstriumThis in-flight checkout procedure was the last but one planned before separation of the Huygens probe from Cassini in December this year, and it included some specific activities that were intended to prepare for the separation. The main difference in this procedure from previous checkouts was that there was a test of the Master Timer Unit (MTU). Because Huygens will spend three weeks coasting towards Titan following separation from the Cassini orbiter, its systems and instruments are powered down. The MTU is the ‘triple-redundant’ alarm-clock that has the most important job of waking up Huygens a few hours before its entry into Titan’s atmosphere. The checkout also included some specific payload activities required to configure the Huygens instruments before separation. The procedure was carried out live, with Cassini transmitting the data to Earth in real-time. However the data arrived on Earth with an 80-minute delay as this is the time taken for light, and therefore radio signals, to travel the distance between Saturn and Earth. The preliminary analysis of the real-time data received, performed within 12 hours after the test, indicates that the MTU test was successful, and that all instruments performed as expected.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Spaceflight Now +Premium video content for our Spaceflight Now Plus subscribers.Huygens mission scienceAfter entering orbit around Saturn, the Cassini spacecraft will launch the European Huygens probe to make a parachute landing on the surface of the moon Titan. The scientific objectives of Huygens are explained by probe project manager Jean-Pierre Lebreton. (3min 14sec file)Saturn’s moon TitanLearn more about Saturn’s moon Titan, which is believed to harbor a vast ocean, in this narrated movie. (4min 01sec file)Relive Cassini’s launchAn Air Force Titan 4B rocket launches NASA’s Cassini spacecraft at 4:43 a.m. October 15, 1997 from Cape Canaveral, Florida. (5min 15sec file)Iapetus: A view from the top CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: January 9, 2004This oblique view of Saturn’s moon Iapetus from high latitude shows how the dark, heavily cratered terrain of Cassini Regio transitions to a bright, icy terrain at high latitudes. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version In this mosaic of two high resolution images taken during Cassini’s New Year’s Eve 2004 flyby of Iapetus, the direction toward the north pole is approximately 15 degrees below the horizontal on the right. At the equator terrains are uniformly covered with a dark mantle of material that has a reflectivity of about 4 percent. At latitudes toward the pole of about 40 degrees, the dark deposits become patchy and diffuse as the surface transitions to a much brighter, icy terrain near the pole. The brightest icy materials exhibit visual reflectivity over 60 percent. Superimposed on the bright terrain is a subtle, ghostly pattern of crudely parallel, north-south trending wispy streaks. The streaks, which were discovered during this flyby of Iapetus, are typically a few kilometers wide and sometimes tens of kilometers long. Their appearance and orientation may be connected with the emplacement of dark materials that cover Cassini Regio. The dark materials might represent the gradual accumulation of dark debris falling from space, or alternatively, may represent fallout from plume-style eruptions that may have accompanied the formation of Iapetus’s enigmatic equatorial ridge. Also seen in this mosaic are conspicuous, north-facing bright crater walls. An example can be seen in the upper left where the bright, 4-kilometer-high (2.5 miles) walls of a 70 kilometer (44 mile) central-peak crater lies. The bright crater walls are often higher in brightness than the corresponding south-facing walls of the same crater. They are vaguely reminiscent of bright north-facing crater walls that were discovered by NASA’s Voyager and Galileo spacecraft in craters near the poles of the Jovian satellites Callisto and Ganymede. In the case of the Jovian satellites, cold-trapping of frosts on north-facing slopes and sublimation of ices from south-facing slopes are thought to produce the north-south asymmetries in crater wall brightness. However, the occurrence of some young-appearing craters on Iapetus that have bright north-facing and dark south-facing slopes, and the pattern of streaks near the north pole of Iapetus suggests that another mechanism may be responsible for the crater wall brightness asymmetries on Iapetus. One possibility is that the south-facing slopes may be stained by the same process that emplaced the low brightness coating throughout the region. In this case, the north-pointing scarps might be bright because they face away and are shielded from the putative falling spray of dark materials. Bright south-facing slopes would exist primarily on young craters that have not been exposed to the darkening agent long enough to be stained. The image was obtained in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow angle camera on Dec. 31, 2004, at a distance of about 123,370 kilometers (76,658 miles) from Iapetus and at a Sun-Iapetus-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 93 degrees. Resolution achieved in the original image was 732 meters (2,401 feet) per pixel. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo. Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Instrument aims at Saturn’s space environment JHU-APL NEWS RELEASEPosted: June 30, 2004As NASA’s Cassini-Huygens spacecraft begins its four-year orbital tour of the Saturn system, mission scientists will use an innovative imaging device to deliver the most detailed look yet at the relationship between the Sun, the giant ringed planet and the diverse collection of moons looping around it.The Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument – or MIMI – is one of 12 science instruments on the main Cassini spacecraft, set to enter orbit around Saturn on July 1 (EDT). The MIMI experiment, an international team effort led by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), Laurel, Md., includes three distinct sensors that will profile the environment of charged particles at Saturn and obtain the first visible, global images of Saturn’s magnetosphere.”Until now, measuring a planet’s magnetic field and charged particle environment – its magnetosphere – has been difficult,” says Dr. Stamatios (Tom) Krimigis, of APL, MIMI principal investigator. “A spacecraft can measure it at one point when it flies past a planet, but you don’t know what’s happening somewhere else and you never get the entire picture. With our instrument, and from orbit around the planet, we’ll be able to look at the changing patterns and dynamics of Saturn’s space weather – actually see how it reacts to the solar wind over time and how it affects the surfaces and atmospheres of the moons embedded in the magnetosphere.”MIMI’s sensors combine three critical measurements to create that picture. Its high-energy particle detector (developed by APL, the Max Plank Institute and a number of co-investigator institutions) looks at the distribution and strength of energetic ions and electrons near the spacecraft. Its charge-energy mass spectrometer (built by the University of Maryland, College Park) measures the charge and determines the elemental composition of these particles.MIMI’s ion and neutral camera takes a wider approach, using an APL-developed technique known as energetic neutral atom imaging to provide a global view of the entire magnetosphere – a deep-space mission first. The camera detects the “glow” of energized particles trapped in the planet’s magnetic field, which will allow scientists to make three-dimensional images of the compression and expansion of Saturn’s magnetosphere as it’s buffeted by the solar wind, or as it sends streams of particles toward the surfaces of Titan and other nearby satellites.”Magnetospheres can change dramatically over a matter of hours to days, so flybys such as the Voyager spacecrafts’ only yield a snapshot in time and space,” says MIMI Instrument Scientist Dr. Donald Mitchell, of APL. “With Cassini we’re going to get years and years of nearly continuous data, which will give us a much more complete understanding of this complex system. We’ll be able to watch the whole dynamic between the sun and Saturn, and the planet and its moons.”The camera was pointed toward Saturn’s magnetosphere four months ago and has already collected impressive data, Mitchell says. MIMI had a successful test run during Cassini’s flight past Jupiter in late 2000-early 2001, providing scientists with never-before-seen images of the giant planet’s magnetosphere and underlying dynamics; a huge nebula of particles – spewed from volcanoes on the moon Io – enveloping Jupiter and extending some 22 million kilometers (13 million miles) past the planet; and a large and surprisingly dense gas cloud sharing an orbit with Jupiter’s icy moon Europa.While the mission at Saturn is just beginning, Krimigis expects MIMI’s data will eventually give scientists a better understanding of the space environment closer to home.”Planetary magnetic fields have a lot in common, even if the planets themselves are very different,” he says. “We hope to find some of the characteristics that affect both the Earth and Saturn, and feed this knowledge back into the models we have for space weather at Earth. Then we can devise accurate space weather forecasts that give advance warning of the electromagnetic storms that affect our satellites, communications, power grids and other technological systems.”Including the APL-built MIMI, half of Cassini’s instruments are designed to investigate the space environments around Saturn and its moons. Cassini – launched on Oct. 15, 1997 – will also release its piggybacked Huygens probe, built by the European Space Agency (ESA), this December for descent through the thick atmosphere of the moon Titan.The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, ESA and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the $3.3-billion mission for NASA’s office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The MIMI team includes investigators and expertise from APL; the University of Maryland, College Park; University of Kansas, Lawrence; University of Arizona, Tucson; Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, N.J.; the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Lindau, Germany; and the Centre d’Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements in Toulouse, France.The Applied Physics Laboratory, a division of The Johns Hopkins University, meets critical national challenges through the innovative application of science and technology.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Latest color pictures from Cassini look like artwork CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: August 19, 2004NASA has released three new stunning color pictures taken by the Cassini spacecraft exploring the planet Saturn. The images show the giant planet, its golden rings and several moons. Credit: NASA/JPL/University of ArizonaDownload larger image version FIRST IMAGE: Saturn’s atmosphere is prominently shown with the rings emerging from behind the planet at upper right. The two moons on the left of the image are Mimas and Enceladus. This image was taken on August 8, 2004, with the Cassini spacecraft narrow angle camera in red, green, and blue filters. This image was taken 8.5 million kilometers (5.3 million miles) from Saturn. Contrast has been enhanced to aid visibility. Credit: NASA/JPL/University of ArizonaDownload larger image version SECOND IMAGE: Saturn’s rings appear golden as the planet’s shadow drapes across nearly the whole span of the rings. In the upper left corner is Saturn’s moon Mimas. This color image was taken on August 15, 2004, with the Cassini spacecraft narrow angle camera, using the red, green, and blue filters. The image was taken 8.8 million kilometers (5.5 million miles) from Saturn. Contrast has been enhanced to aid visibility. Credit: NASA/JPL/University of ArizonaDownload larger image version THIRD IMAGE: Saturn and its rings are prominently shown in this color image, along with three of Saturn’s smaller moons. From left to right, they are Prometheus, Pandora and Janus. Prometheus and Pandora are often called the “F ring shepherds” as they control and interact with Saturn’s interesting F ring, seen between them. This image was taken on June 18, 2004, with the Cassini spacecraft narrow angle camera 8.2 million kilometers (5.1 million miles) from Saturn. It was created using the red, green, and blue filters. Contrast has been enhanced to aid visibility. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Mission has faced many hurdles and challenges BY WILLIAM HARWOOD

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    Posted: June 6, 2011T-00:00LiftoffThe Delta 2 rocket’s main engine and twin vernier steering thrusters are started moments before launch. The three strap-on solid rocket motors are ignited at T-0 to begin the mission.T+01:04.0SRB BurnoutThe ground-start Alliant TechSystems-built solid rocket motors consume all their propellant and burn out.T+01:39.0Jettison SRBsThe spent solid rocket boosters are jettisoned to fall into the Pacific Ocean. The spent casings remained attached until the vehicle passed into preset drop zone, clear of offshore oil platforms.T+04:24.2Main Engine CutoffAfter consuming its RP-1 fuel and liquid oxygen, the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne RS-27A first stage main engine is shut down. The vernier engines cut off moments later.T+04:32.2Stage SeparationThe Delta rocket’s first stage is separated now, having completed its job. The spent stage will fall into the Pacific Ocean.T+04:37.7Second Stage IgnitionWith the stage jettisoned, the rocket’s second stage takes over. The Aerojet AJ118-K liquid-fueled engine ignites for the first of two firings needed to place the Aquarius/SAC-D spacecraft into the proper orbit.T+04:50.0Jettison Payload FairingThe 10-foot diameter payload fairing that protected the Aquarius/SAC-D cargo atop the Delta 2 during the atmospheric ascent is jettisoned is two halves.T+11:16.1Second Stage Cutoff 1The second stage engine shuts down to complete its first firing of the launch. The rocket and attached spacecraft are now in a long coast period before the second stage reignites. The orbit achieved should be 416 miles at apogee and 98 miles at perigee.T+52:19.7Second Stage RestartDelta’s second stage engine reignites for a short firing to raise the orbit’s perigee.T+52:32.0Second Stage Cutoff 2The second stage shuts down after a 13-second burn to put the payload into a 408-mile orbit inclined 98.01 degrees.T+56:42.0Payload SeparationArgentina’s SAC-D satellite with the Aquarius instrument for NASA is released from the Delta 2 rocket, completing the launch.Data source: ULA and NASA.STS-134 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Endeavour is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-134. Available in our store!Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is now available in our store. Get this piece of history!Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.STS-133 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Discovery is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-133. Available in our store!Anniversary Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This embroidered patch commemorates the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program. The design features the space shuttle Columbia’s historic maiden flight of April 12, 1981.Mercury anniversaryFree shipping to U.S. addresses!Celebrate the 50th anniversary of Alan Shephard’s historic Mercury mission with this collectors’ item, the official commemorative embroidered patch. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Delta 357 launch timelineSPACEFLIGHT NOW

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    Posted: February 19, 2007Aiming to uncover the physics that power the auroras that crown Earth’s poles, five tiny probes have been launched into space for a synchronized orbital dance to locate where the trigger is pulled to create the eerily magnificent displays. The Delta 2 rocket lifts off at 6:01 p.m. EST (2301 GMT). Credit: Carleton Bailie for United Launch Alliance NASA’s $200 million THEMIS mission blasted off just before sunset Saturday from Cape Canaveral’s pad 17B aboard a United Launch Alliance Delta 2 rocket.The 73-minute flight of the three-stage launcher culminated off the northeastern coast of Australia, when the five probes were flung off their spinning carrier.Each of the 282-pound spacecraft is equipped with identical suites of instruments to examine the origin of space explosions known as substorms. The events start with the soup of ionized particles from the sun, called the solar wind, buffeting the Earth at a million miles per hour. Some of that energy gets trapped in the magnetic field, causing the field lines to stretch back in the direction opposite the sun like rubberbands. But when stretched too far the lines snap, releasing the energy that generates shimmering auroral displays.”For over 30 years, the source location of these explosive energy releases has been sought after with great fervor. It is a question almost as old as space physics itself,” said THEMIS principal investigator Vassilis Angelopoulos. “A substorm starts from a single point in space and progresses past the moon’s orbit within minutes, so a single satellite cannot identify the substorm origin. The five-satellite constellation of THEMIS will finally identify the trigger location and the physics involved in substorms.” “Substorms are what make the aurorae interesting,” said John Bonnell, a plasma physicist and aurora specialist with THEMIS. “Without them, the greenish white sheets are static, like a cloud. Substorms make the sheets ripple and create different colors, such as red borders and colorful edge effects.” “THEMIS is so important because the same fundamental physical process is seen around all planets, it happens on the sun in solar flares, and in astrophysical systems such as black holes,” Angelopoulos said. “It’s amazing that being so close to us, here at Earth, it is not understood yet.” An artist’s concept shows the five THEMIS probes in space. Credit: NASATHEMIS is the first NASA mission to launch five science satellites together aboard one rocket.”They say good things come in small packages. I’d have to say these probes are great by that measure,” said Peter Harvey, the THEMIS project manager from the University of California at Berkeley.”They are powerful. It is amazing to think that these things will accelerate themselves over half-way to the moon. Each one has 40 percent of its weight as fuel. So it’s able to change its orbit and go quite a distance.”The probes are tough. They can take flying through the radiation belts and keep on going. They can take three-hour shadows of the Earth and keep every component inside warm while the outside is freezing cold.”The probes are smart. Every one of them travels a vast distance from the Earth and can’t do that in contact with the Earth. So it can’t constantly telemeter. So each probe has to then detect the substorm, capture that data, compress it and then wait until it gets closer to Earth to transmit that data to the ground.”The probes are really efficiently packed. Things are so jam-packed inside each probe that you can’t fit your hand in between any two items.”The probes were built by Swales Aerospace, and their measurements will be combined with a network of observatories across the northern U.S. and Canadian.”I cannot explain all my excitement. This has been a truly exciting project — building five spacecraft and 20 ground-based observatories, flying spacecraft in synchronized orbits. You couldn’t ask for more,” Harvey said. An artist’s concept shows the five THEMIS probes in space. Credit: NASAThe craft will spend the next month activating their instruments. This fall, controllers will maneuver the probes into wide-ranging orbits to begin the sophisticated orbital ballet in which all five line up behind the Earth once every four days to hunt for the substorm trigger site. The main science-collecting period will occur during the winter.Saturday’s launch marked the 72nd consecutive successful flight by a Delta 2 rocket since 1997 and the 125th success overall in the 127-flight history of the workhorse booster dating back to 1989. “The United Launch Alliance team is proud to support the science and robotic mission of NASA’s space exploration program by successfully completing our first east coast launch,” said Mike Gass, president and chief executive officer of ULA.The newly-formed United Launch Alliance now manages all Delta and Atlas rocket missions. ULA is the joint venture between Boeing and Lockheed Martin that has combined the Delta and Atlas rocket fleets.”This is the first of a total of 21 launches we have manifested in 2007 consisting of a dozen Delta 2s, six Atlas 5s and three Delta 4s from the east and west coasts,” said Dan Collins, ULA chief operating officer. “As our team proved today, they are up to the task. By focusing on safe practices, customer needs and mission success, I believe 2007 will be a banner inaugural year for ULA.” Next up is the Atlas 5 launch of six experimental satellites for the U.S. military. That liftoff from Cape Canaveral had been planned for February 22, but officials ordered a two-week delay while the Sea Launch failure investigation continues. The Atlas 5’s RD-180 first stage main engine is derived from the Russian powerplant used on the Sea Launch Zenit boosters.Additional coverage for subscribers:VIDEO:DELTA ROCKET LAUNCHES THEMIS VIDEO:WIDE-SCREEN LAUNCH MOVIE FROM PRESS SITE VIDEO:WIDE-SCREEN LAUNCH MOVIE FROM PATRICK AFB VIDEO:WIDE-SCREEN LAUNCH MOVIE FROM PLAYALINDA BEACH VIDEO:SPACECRAFT SEPARATION CONFIRMED VIDEO:POST-LAUNCH COMMENTS VIDEO:FRIDAY’S LAUNCH ATTEMPT SCRUBBED VIDEO:PAD SERVICE GANTRY ROLLED BACK VIDEO:THEMIS MISSION SCIENCE PREVIEW VIDEO:WATCH THE PRE-LAUNCH NEWS CONFERENCE VIDEO:ROCKET NOSE CONE INSTALLED AROUND THEMIS VIDEO:SPACECRAFT MOUNTED ATOP DELTA ROCKET VIDEO:THEMIS DELIVERED TO THE LAUNCH PAD VIDEO:SECOND STAGE ATTACHED VIDEO:FIRST STAGE ERECTED MORE:Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is now available in our store. 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The capsule is one of the key elements of returning astronauts to the Moon.Fallen Heroes Patch CollectionThe official patches from Apollo 1, the shuttle Challenger and Columbia crews are available in the store. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Fixes ordered across Boeing’s Delta 4 rocket line SPACEFLIGHT NOWPosted: April 10, 2005CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Boeing’s Delta 4 rockets are being retrofitted with new pressure valves to alleviate bubbling in liquid oxygen fuel lines that possibly occurred in the fleet’s maiden liftoff in 2002 and investigators determined caused engine trouble during the first Heavy booster’s December test flight.The so-called cavitation is a phenomenon when super-cold cryogenic liquid oxygen changes to vapor bubbles within a rocket’s feedlines running from fuel tanks to engines.Rocket designers never caught the potential for such a problem in the Delta 4’s first stage until after the Heavy’s demonstration launch that suffered early extinctions of its three main engines during ascent. The shortened firings resulted in the rocket failing to achieve the proper altitude to deploy a pair of student-built nanosat experiments and a massive satellite mockup.The inquiry into the incident formally concluded with corrective actions to fix both the Delta 4-Medium and -Heavy rocket versions to prevent a repeat on future launches.Government and industry investigators said the bubbling started at the entrance of the liquid oxygen feedline where a filtration screen, the line’s elbow bend and an internal gimbal strut altered the fuel flow. This changed the fluid’s speed and decreased pressure as the liquid oxygen streamed from the tank.The Delta 4-Heavy features three Common Booster Core stages mounted together, each identical with a liquid oxygen tank on top, the large liquid hydrogen fuel tank accounting for three-quarters of the stage’s length and a Rocketdyne RS-68 engine at the bottom.All three CBCs on the Heavy demo flight saw cavitation. The bubbles made their way five feet downstream from the liquid oxygen tanks to internal sensors used to tell the engines when the fuel supply is expended and command the shutoff sequence. The bubbles fooled the sensors into thinking the tanks were going dry and triggered the engine cutoff despite plenty of liquid oxygen still aboard.”This feedline design has been present in all previous Delta 4 flights, but the unique combination of vehicle acceleration, liquid level in the tank and propellant flow rate for the Heavy mission reduced the fluid pressure enough to enable the creation of gaseous oxygen at this location as the tanks emptied,” investigators determined.”Further draining of the liquid oxygen tank worsened the conditions at the feedline inlet, causing the cavitation effect to extend further down the feedline. A pocket of gaseous oxygen continued to enlarge until it reached the Engine Cut-Off (ECO) sensors and caused the ECO sensors to momentarily indicate dry. This ECO sensor dry indication was sensed by the flight computer, which initiated the sequence to throttle-down and shut off the main engines as it is programmed to do.”In reality, flight data showed that sufficient propellant remained in the tank to complete the planned first stage burn time.”Despite extensive analytical work to understand the rocket’s performance before the Heavy flight and even the first Delta 4-Medium in 2002, engineers did not look at the engine cutoff sensor area for possible cavitation.”Based on a lot of previous experience we look very hard at cavitation at the inlet to the RS-68 engine, as that is the traditional place where cavitation might cause a problem. We did not look at this issue up at the top of the feedline where the ECO sensor is,” Dan Collins, Boeing’s Vice President of Expendable Launch Systems, said in a news conference Friday. The media briefing followed a remarkably open and forthcoming flow of information throughout the investigation that began immediately after the December 21 launch.”We are as much at fault as Boeing in terms of not looking at this. Cavitation at the engines is a routine phenomenon. For whatever reason we did not think to look 100 feet up the LOX feedline,” said Ken Holden, general manager of the EELV division at the federally-funded engineering support firm Aerospace Corp. “The nuances of this are such that it would not occur on each and every mission. It took a particular set of circumstances to bring this together.”As part of the Heavy’s investigation, engineers reviewed data from the earlier three Medium missions to see if bubbling occurred on those launches. The inaugural flight possibly experienced cavitation, however it did not trigger an engine shutdown.”We have gone back and looked very hard at this phenomenon. There is a possibility that it may have occurred on one of the earlier flights,” Collins said.”We did not have the special instrumentation that was present on the Heavy demo, though, to know that for sure. There was absolutely no premature (engine cutoff), no signs of this at all. And when I say cavitation, it is possible that a very small vapor bubble well away from the engine cutoff sensors may have developed. There was absolutely no interaction with the cavitation and the engine cutoff sensors.”Hardware and computer software changes are being ordered to increase the pressure in the liquid oxygen tank to counteract the pressure losses in the upper portion of the feedline, thereby removing the potential for bubbles forming. The earlier Delta 4 flights permitted the pressure to drop during the rocket’s ascent. To raise the tank pressure later in the launch phase, the current pressure relief valve will be replaced with one having a higher pressure. Also, flight software will be modified to provide commands needed to increase the tank pressure later in the launch.Other alterations to onboard software include changes to guard against the engine cutoff sensors being tricked. The time in which the rocket’s computer brain will begin accepting “dry” signals from the fuel lines will be moved later, the Air Force said.”It’s really a one-time fix that we will then carry through all vehicles going forward. We will have those completed over the next several months,” Collins said.The next Delta 4 mission, using a Medium vehicle, does not require the fixes because its flight profile is deemed not susceptible to cavitation. That mid-to-late May launch will carry the next civilian geostationary weather satellite into orbit for the U.S. government from Cape Canaveral.The first rocket to receive the changes is stacked on the Space Launch Complex-6 pad at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California for a planned August 30 liftoff with a classified national security satellite payload.Schedules call for the next Heavy mission to occur on October 28 to deploy a missile-launch detection satellite, called DSP-23, from Cape Canaveral. Collins said the fixes won’t delay the launch plans.”All in all, the Heavy demo mission was successful in providing a wealth of vehicle design, environment and performance validation data. We are now taking all our knowledge and understanding from this Demo mission and applying it as we prepare for our operational missions,” Collins said.”Straightforward fixes have been identified that will allow us to safely fly the Delta 4 fleet without risk of repeating the cavitation that led to premature engine shutdown,” said Col. John Insprucker, Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle system program director.”The team findings do not detract from the successes we experienced on the Delta 4 mission. We successfully checked out and launched a Heavy rocket from the Boeing launch pad that also saw its first Heavy flight. We successfully flew three liquid-propelled booster cores side-by-side and cleanly separated the strap ons. We successfully flew the upper stage through the long three-burn profile required of a geosynchronous mission. We successfully separated the Demosat satellite.”The ability of the Delta 4 to fly an end-to-end mission, despite the premature engine shutdown, made this an exemplary test flight,” Insprucker said.Additional coverage for subscribers:VIDEO:SPACEFLIGHT NOW LAUNCH PAD CAMERA 1 VIDEO:SPACEFLIGHT NOW LAUNCH PAD CAMERA 2 VIDEO:FROM LIFTOFF TO BOOSTER SEPARATION VIDEO:THE DELTA 4-HEAVY LAUNCH (SHORT VERSION) VIDEO:ONBOARD CAMERA RECORDS LAUNCH VIDEO:ONBOARD CAMERA SEES BOOSTER SEPARATION VIDEO:ONBOARD CAMERA CAPTURES FAIRING JETTISON AUDIO:LISTEN TO THE 68-MINUTE PRE-LAUNCH NEWS CONFERENCE VIDEO:ANIMATION PROVIDES PREVIEW OF A DELTA 4-HEAVY LAUNCH VIDEO:RE-LIVE THE INAUGURAL DELTA 4 LAUNCH FROM 2002 VIDEO:ON-PAD FLIGHT READINESS ENGINE FIRING TEST VIDEO:TAKE TOUR OF LAUNCH PAD 37B Apollo 11 special patchSpecial collectors’ patch marking the 35th anniversary of the historic Apollo 11 moon landing is now available.Choose your store: – – – Inside Apollo mission controlAn insider’s view of how Apollo flight controllers operated and just what they faced when events were crucial. 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    Launch highlights from first Vandenberg’s Delta 4-Heavy. Credit: ULAA new strategy, being employed to reduce the hydrogen flames generated during startup of the three Aerojet Rocketdyne RS-68 main engines, will see the triple-body rocket light one engine two seconds before the other two. Counting down to liftoff at 10:52 a.m. local (1:52 p.m. EDT; 1752 GMT), the Terminal Countdown sequencer will take control at T-minus 10 seconds and the starboard engine begins to ignite at T-minus 7 seconds. Unburned hydrogen is released through the engine and hits the burnoff sparklers beneath the rocket, creating a dramatic fireball around the vehicle’s base, something that has become a customary trademark for Delta 4 launches over the past decade.But the new staggered process is designed to lessen that pre-liftoff fire before the 23-story-tall Heavy takes to the sky. With the first engine running and working to aspirate the forthcoming hydrogen flame from the other two boosters, the center and port engines will begin their ignition process at T-minus 5 seconds and see a significant portion of the resulting fire drawn into launch table instead of rising up.Vandenberg’s previous Heavy lifts off in 2011. Credit: Pat Corkery/United Launch AllianceThe six previous launches of Delta 4-Heavy rockets — five from Cape Canaveral and one from Vandenberg — commanded all three engines to ignite simultaneously.The earlier Vandenberg launch in 2011, however, saw the ignition plume catch external insulation on fire as the vehicle lifted off and cleared to the pad. The flames extinguished a few seconds later and the mission proceeded successfully.The staggered engine sequence is meant to prevent such a reoccurrence without altering the engines’ operations during flight, providing a cleaner and less dramatic launch.The debut of this procedure on the East Coast will be made next year when a Heavy launches NASA’s Orion deep-space capsule on a three-orbit shakedown cruise around the Earth.Each engine guzzles nearly a ton of propellants per second to produce 656,000 pounds of sea-level rated thrust. The upper stage, with its Aerojet Rocketdyne RL10B-2 engine, takes over about six minutes into flight.Wednesday’s mission, flying southward from Vandenberg, will place a classified payload into polar orbit for the U.S. National Reconnaissance Office, the agency responsible for operating the country’s fleet for spy satellites.The Delta 4-Heavy is America’s largest unmanned rocket currently in service, capable of lofting the biggest and heftiest cargos. The mammoth vehicle is created by taking three Common Booster Cores — the liquid hydrogen-fueled motor that forms a Delta 4-Medium’s first stage — and strapping them together to form a triple-barrel rocket, and then adding an upper stage. The first West Coast Delta 4-Heavy at Vandenberg’s SLC 6 in 2011. Credit: Pat Corkery/United Launch Alliance”There’s nothing bigger that the United States launches — period — in any way, shape or form, and that is absolutely amazing,” said Lt. Col. Jim Bodnar, commander of the 4th Space Launch Squadron at Vandenberg.A Heavy launching from Vandenberg is capable of putting school bus-sized reconnaissance observatories into polar orbit, a performance roughly comparable to the retired space shuttles and Titan 4 rockets.The target launch date for this mission, designated NROL-65, has remained unchanged for months, staying on schedule despite sequestration and personnel furloughs.”I don’t want to jinx myself, but it has been an extremely smooth flow,” Bodnar said. “It is a testament to the work ULA does and that the 4th Space Launch Squadron oversees. I dare say this has been one of the smoothest flows that I’ve seen.”A lengthy series of readiness reviews ranging from subsystems to the payload has been underway since last week. The assessments culminate with the final launch approval to be given Tuesday, Bodnar said.”The launch business is probably one of the most risk-adverse businesses out there,” Bodnar said. “The extra time the reviews take are well worth the cost because the alternative is unthinkable.”Crews at the Space Launch Complex 6 pad, the site formerly envisioned for West Coast space shuttle missions, will retract the mobile assembly shelter to its launch position on Monday. The 9-million-pound structure provides environmentally-friendly working conditions at the pad, originally to avoid high winds during shuttle stacking operations.The 13-million-pound mobile service tower that provides all-level access to the rocket will be wheeled back Tuesday night ahead of the countdown.Clocks will start ticking at 4:52 a.m. local Wednesday, followed a short time later by fueling operations for the eight cryogenic liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen tanks aboard the vehicle.A planned built-in hold is scheduled at T-minus 4 minutes and will last for 45 minutes, leading to liftoff at 10:52 a.m. local (1:52 p.m. EDT; 1752 GMT).It will be the 364th flight of a Delta rocket, the 24th for the Delta 4 family, the NRO’s eighth use of the Delta 4 and ULA’s 74th mission, the eighth just this year.”Rarely do you see dry eyes when the rocket launches and you know that it’s successful,” Bodnar said. “The fact that we actually get to see the fruits of all of that labor is actually amazing. They’re awe-inspiring.”Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is now available in our store. Get this piece of history!STS-134 PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The final planned flight of space shuttle Endeavour is symbolized in the official embroidered crew patch for STS-134. Available in our store!Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Project OrionThe Orion crew exploration vehicle is NASA’s first new human spacecraft developed since the space shuttle a quarter-century earlier. The capsule is one of the key elements of returning astronauts to the Moon.Fallen Heroes Patch CollectionThe official patches from Apollo 1, the shuttle Challenger and Columbia crews are available in the store. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.An introduction to general relativityNASAPRESS KIT

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    Posted: January 30, 2009T-00:00LiftoffThe Delta 2 rocket’s main engine and twin vernier steering thrusters are started moments before launch. The three strap-on solid rocket motors are ignited at T-0 to begin the mission.T+01:04.0SRB BurnoutThe ground-start Alliant TechSystems-built solid rocket motors consume all their propellant and burn out.T+01:39.0Jettison SRBsThe spent solid rocket boosters are jettisoned to fall into the Pacific Ocean. The spent casings remained attached until the vehicle passed into preset drop zone, clear of offshore oil platforms.T+01:40.0Begin Dog-legAfter initially flying from Vandenberg along a 196-degree flight azimuth, the rocket begins steering itself to obtain the desired orbital inclination. This dog-leg maneuver continues for 40 seconds.T+04:24.2Main Engine CutoffAfter consuming its RP-1 fuel and liquid oxygen, the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne RS-27A first stage main engine is shut down. The vernier engines cut off moments later.T+04:32.7Stage SeparationThe Delta rocket’s first stage is separated now, having completed its job. The spent stage will fall into the Pacific Ocean.T+04:37.7Second Stage IgnitionWith the stage jettisoned, the rocket’s second stage takes over. The Aerojet AJ118-K liquid-fueled engine ignites for the first of two firings needed to place the NOAA-N Prime spacecraft into the proper orbit.T+04:56.0Jettison Payload FairingThe 10-foot diameter payload fairing that protected the NOAA-N Prime cargo atop the Delta 2 during the atmospheric ascent is jettisoned is two halves.T+11:16.1Second Stage Cutoff 1The second stage engine shuts down to complete its first firing of the launch. The rocket and attached spacecraft are now in a long coast period before the second stage reignites. The orbit achieved should be 468 nautical miles at apogee, 100 miles at perigee and inclined 98.6 degrees.T+59:21.0Second Stage RestartDelta’s second stage engine reignites for a short firing to raise the orbit’s perigee.T+59:34.3Second Stage Cutoff 2The second stage shuts down after a 13-second burn. The orbit achieved should be 466.5 nautical miles at apogee, 463.0 miles at perigee and inclined 98.7 degrees.T+65:40.0Payload SeparationThe NOAA-N Prime polar-orbiting weather satellite is released from the Delta 2 rocket, completing the launch.Data source: ULA.John Glenn Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The historic first orbital flight by an American is marked by this commemorative patch for John Glenn and Friendship 7.Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is available in our store. Get this piece of history!Celebrate the shuttle programFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This special commemorative patch marks the retirement of NASA’s Space Shuttle Program. Available in our store!Anniversary Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This embroidered patch commemorates the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program. The design features the space shuttle Columbia’s historic maiden flight of April 12, 1981.Mercury anniversaryFree shipping to U.S. addresses!Celebrate the 50th anniversary of Alan Shephard’s historic Mercury mission with this collectors’ item, the official commemorative embroidered patch.Fallen Heroes Patch CollectionThe official patches from Apollo 1, the shuttle Challenger and Columbia crews are available in the store. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Delta 341 launch timelineSPACEFLIGHT NOW

  152. Air Max Light EssentialOct 31, 2014 at 11:43 amReply

    STORY WRITTEN FOR & USED WITH PERMISSIONPosted: January 14, 2005Robert Mitchell, NASA’s Cassini program manager at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., says the loss of one telemetry stream from the Huygens Titan probe appears to be the result of an actual problem of some sort on board the spacecraft.”The evidence we have a problem on chain A is pretty clear,” he said. “I don’t think the continuing playback (of Huygens data from Cassini) is going to resolve that problem. We just need to sort out what happened with it.”Engineers at the European Space Agency’s Space Operations Center in Germany are receiving data from Huygens on chain, or channel, B but not from chain A. Both systems are identical and scientists should receive almost all of the desired data from chain B, Mitchell said.”The way the probe system works, there are two transmitters on the probe and there are two separate receivers on the orbiter so we have two separate, distinct data links between the probe and the orbiter,” he said. “These data links were deigned to be largely redundant, not 100 percent, but nearly so.”The way we sit now, it’s clear that the B channel is coming in loud and clear and up to this point, we haven’t missed a single data packet. Now on the A channel, we do have a problem and we’re still sorting out what happened thre. But this, I think, will be only a minor lien on the significance of the success that’s been accomplished here just because of the redundancy between the two sides.”Of course, the reason you put redundancy in the design to begin with is to make yourself resilient to whatever may have happened here,” Mitchell said. “So we’re still sorting out exactly what happened to the A chain, but we’ve got at least most of the data we expected to get.”Video coverage for subscribers only:VIDEO:STATUS REPORT DURING DESCENT AUDIO:TODAY’S STATUS REPORT DURING DESCENT VIDEO:HUYGENS PRE-ARRIVAL NEWS BRIEFING AUDIO:HUYGENS PRE-ARRIVAL NEWS BRIEFING VIDEO:OVERVIEW OF HUYGENS PROBE’S SCIENCE OBJECTIVES VIDEO:JULY NEWS BRIEFING ON CASSINI’S PICTURES OF TITAN VIDEO:PICTURES SHOWING TITAN SURFACE FROM OCT. FLYBY VIDEO:WHAT’S KNOWN ABOUT TITAN BEFORE THE FIRST FLYBY VIDEO:NARRATED MOVIE OF CLOUDS MOVING NEAR SOUTH POLE VIDEO:OCT. BRIEFING ON RADAR IMAGES OF TITAN SURFACE Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Out from the shadows: Two new Saturnian moons CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: August 16, 2004With eyes sharper than any that have peered at Saturn before, the Cassini spacecraft has uncovered two moons, which may be the smallest bodies so far seen around the ringed planet. This image shows the tiny ‘worldlet,’ temporarily dubbed S/2004 S1, as it makes its way around the planet. A white box frames the moon’s location in the image. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteThe moons are approximately 3 kilometers (2 miles) and 4kilometers (2.5 miles) across — smaller than the city ofBoulder, Colorado. The moons, located 194,000 kilometers(120,000 miles) and 211,000 kilometers (131,000 miles) from theplanet’s center, are between the orbits of two other saturnianmoons, Mimas and Enceladus. They are provisionally namedS/2004 S1 and S/2004 S2. One of them, S/2004 S1, may be anobject spotted in a single image taken by NASA’s Voyagerspacecraft 23 years ago, called at that time S/1981 S14.”One of our major objectives in returning to Saturn was tosurvey the entire system for new bodies,” said Dr. CarolynPorco, imaging team leader, Space Science Institute, Boulder,Colo. Porco planned the imaging sequences. “So, it’s reallygratifying to know that among all the other fantasticdiscoveries we will make over the next four years, we can nowadd the confirmation of two new moons, skipping unnoticedaround Saturn for billions of years until just now.?The moons were first seen by Dr. Sebastien Charnoz, a planetarydynamicist working with Dr. Andre Brahic, imaging team memberat the University of Paris. “Discovering these faintsatellites was an exciting experience, especially the feelingof being the first person to see a new body of our solarsystem,” said Charnoz. “I had looked for such objects forweeks while at my office in Paris, but it was only once onholiday, using my laptop, that my code eventually detectedthem. This tells me I should take more holidays.”The smallest previously known moons around Saturn are about 20kilometers (12 miles) across. Scientists expected that moonsas small as S/2004 S1 and S/2004 S2 might be found within gapsin the rings and perhaps near the F ring, so they weresurprised these small bodies are between two major moons. Smallcomets careening around the outer solar system would beexpected to collide with small moons and break them to bits. This shows the second new ‘worldlet,’ temporarily dubbed S/2004 S2. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteThe fact that these moons exist where they do might providelimits on the number of small comets in the outer solar system,a quantity essential for understanding the Kuiper Belt ofcomets beyond Neptune, and the cratering histories of the moonsof the giant planets.”A comet striking an inner moon of Saturn moves many timesfaster than a speeding bullet,” said Dr. Luke Dones, an imagingteam member from the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder,Colo. “If small, house-sized comets are common, these moonsshould have been blown apart many times by cometary impactsduring the history of the solar system. The disrupted moonwould form a ring, and then most of the material wouldeventually gather back together into a moon. However, if smallcomets are rare, as they seem to be in the Jupiter system, thenew moons might have survived since the early days of the solarsystem.”Moons surrounding the giant planets generally are not foundwhere they originally formed because tidal forces from theplanet can cause them to drift from their original locations.In drifting, they may sweep through locations where other moonsdisturb them, making their orbits eccentric or inclinedrelative to the planet’s equator. One of the new moons mighthave undergone such an evolution.Upcoming imaging sequences will scour the gaps in Saturn’srings in search of moons believed to be there. Meanwhile,Cassini scientists are eager to get a closer look, if at allpossible, at their new finds. Porco said, “We are at this verymoment looking to see what the best times are for retargeting.Hopefully, we haven’t seen the last of them.”The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA,the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The JetPropulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Instituteof Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens missionfor NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. TheCassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed,developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based atthe Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo.Ares 1-X PatchThe official embroidered patch for the Ares 1-X rocket test flight, is available for purchase.Apollo CollageThis beautiful one piece set features the Apollo program emblem surrounded by the individual mission logos.Expedition 21The official embroidered patch for the International Space Station Expedition 21 crew is now available from our stores.Hubble PatchThe official embroidered patch for mission STS-125, the space shuttle’s last planned service call to the Hubble Space Telescope, is available for purchase. | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Phoebe’s surface gives scientists clues to its origin CASSINI PHOTO RELEASEPosted: June 14, 2004Images collected during Cassini’s close flyby of Saturn’s moon, Phoebe, have yielded strong evidence that the tiny object may contain ice-rich material, overlain with a thin layer of darker material perhaps 300 to 500 meters (980 to 1,600 feet) thick. The surface of Phoebe is also heavily potholed with large and small craters. Images revealbright streaks in the ramparts of the largest craters, bright rays which emanate from smaller craters, and uninterrupted grooves across the face of the body.”The imaging team is in hot debate at the moment on the interpretations of our findings,” said Dr. Carolyn Porco, Cassini imaging team leader at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo. “Based on our images, some of us are leaning towards the view that has been promoted recently, that Phoebe is probably ice-rich and may be an object originating in the outer solar system, more related to comets and Kuiper Belt objects than to asteroids.”In ascertaining Phoebe’s origin, imaging scientists are noting important differences between the surface of Phoebe and that of rocky asteroids which have been seen at comparable resolution. “Asteroids seen up close, like Ida, Mathilde, and Eros, and the small martian satellites do not have the bright ‘speckling’ associated with the small craters that are seen on Phoebe,” said Dr. Peter Thomas, an imaging team member from Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.The landforms observed in the highest resolution images also contain clues to the internal structure of Phoebe. Dr. Alfred McEwen, an imaging team member from the University of Arizona, Tucson, said, “Phoebe is a world of dramatic landforms, with craters everywhere, landslides, and linear structures such as grooves, ridges, and chains of pits. These are clues to the internal properties of Phoebe, which we’ll be looking at very closely in order to understand Phoebe’s origin and evolution.””I think these images are showing us an ancient remnant of the bodies that formed over four billion years ago in the outer reaches of the solar system,” said Dr. Torrence Johnson, an imaging team member from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. “Battered and beat-up as it is, it is still giving us clues to its origin and history.”Phoebe may be an icy interloper from the distant outer solar system which found itself captured by giant Saturn in its earliest, formative years. Final conclusions on Phoebe’s origins await a combination of the results on Phoebe’s surface structures, mass and composition gathered from all 11 instruments, which collected data during the flyby on June 11, 2004.”This has been an impressive whirlwind flyby and it’s only a curtain raiser on the events about to begin,” said Porco. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version FIRST IMAGE: Images like this one, showing bright wispy streaks thought to be ice revealed by subsidence of crater walls, are leading to the view that Phoebe is an ice-rich body overlain with a thin layer of dark material. Obvious down slope motion of material occurring along the walls of the major craters in this image is the cause for the bright streaks, which are over-exposed here. Significant slumping has occurred along the crater wall at top left. The slumping of material might have occurred by a small projectile punching into the steep slope of the wall of a pre-existing larger crater. Another possibility is that the material collapsed when triggered by another impact elsewhere on Phoebe. Note that the bright, exposed areas of ice are not very uniform along the wall. Small craters are exposing bright material on the hummocky floor of the larger crater. Elsewhere on this image, there are local areas of outcropping along the larger crater wall where denser, more resistant material is located. Whether these outcrops are large blocks being exhumed by landslides or actual ‘bedrock’ is not currently understood. The crater on the left, with most of the bright streamers, is about 45 kilometers (28 miles) in diameter, front to back as viewed. The larger depression in which the crater sits is on the order of 100 kilometers (62 miles) across. The slopes from the rim down to the hummocky floor are approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) long; many of the bright streamers on the crater wall are on the order of 10 kilometers (6 miles) long. A future project for Cassini image scientists will be to work out the chronology of slumping events in this scene. This image was obtained at a phase, or Sun-Phoebe-spacecraft, angle of 78 degrees, and from a distance of 11,918 kilometers (7,407 miles). The image scale is approximately 70 meters (230 feet) per pixel. No enhancement was performed on this image. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version SECOND IMAGE: A mosaic of two images of Saturn’s moon Phoebe taken shortly after Cassini’s flyby on June 11, 2004, gives a close-up view of a region near its South Pole. The view, taken about 13,000 kilometers (8,000 miles) from Phoebe, is about 120 kilometers (74 miles) across and shows a region battered by craters. Brighter material, likely to be ice, is exposed by small craters and streams down the slopes of large craters. The skyline is a combination of Phoebe’s shape and the formation of impact craters. Walls of some of the larger craters are more than 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) high. The image scale is 80 meters (264 feet) per pixel. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version THIRD IMAGE: Shown here is a mosaic of seven of the sharpest, highest resolution images taken of Phoebe during Cassini’s close flyby of the tiny moon. The image scales range from 27 to 13 meters (90 to 43 feet) per pixel. Smaller and smaller craters can be resolved as resolution increases from left to right. The number of blocks, or bumps on the surface also increases to the right. The Sun is coming from the right, so the bright-dark pattern is reversed between blocks and small craters. Grooves or chains of pits are seen on the left portion of the mosaic, which may mark fractures or faults induced by large impact events. Many of the small craters have bright rays, similar to recent craters on the Moon. There are also bright streaks on steep slopes, perhaps where loose material slid downhill during the seismic shaking of impact events. There are also places where especially dark materials are present, perhaps rich in carbon compounds. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version FOURTH IMAGE: On June 11, 2004, during its closest approach to Phoebe, Cassini obtained this extremely high resolution view of a dark, desolate landscape. Regions of different reflectivity are clearly visible on what appears to be a gently rolling surface. Notable are several bright-rayed impact craters, lots of small craters with bright-colored floors and light-colored streaks across the landscape. Note also the several sharply defined craters — probably fairly young features — near the upper left corner. This high-resolution image was obtained at a phase, or Sun-Phoebe-spacecraft, angle of 30.7 degrees, and from a distance of approximately 2,365 kilometers (1,470 miles). The image scale is approximately 14 meters (46 feet) per pixel. The image was high-pass filtered to bring out small scale features and then enhanced in contrast. Fallen Heroes special patchThis special 12-inch embroidered patch commemorates the U.S. astronauts who made the ultimate sacrifice, honoring the crews of Apollo 1, Challenger and Columbia.Choose your store: – – – Moon RushThis book examines how the exploration of space, specifically a commercial base on the Moon and Mars would transform our economies on the Earth as surely as the discovery of the New World transformed the old world of Europe.Choose your store: – – – Apollo 11 special patchSpecial collectors’ patch marking the 35th anniversary of the historic Apollo 11 moon landing is now available.Choose your store: – – – Get inside Apollo!Full color drawings reveal like never before the details of the Apollo Command and Service Modules.Choose your store: – – – | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Pictures show active world shaped by cryogenic liquids BY WILLIAM HARWOOD

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